Alerts: Private pilot aeroplane

Here you can see details of all alerts issued during the last 12 months. Select a category to see the relevant headlines, sorted by date, and click on one to read the full alert. If you are looking for information about an older notification please email content@caa.co.uk including the reference number where possible e.g. SW2017/194.

CHIRP General Aviation FEEDBACK Edition 78

The latest edition of CHIRP’s GA Feedback bulletin features the usual range of confidential reports from pilots. Poor pre-flight planning and preparation is a strong theme running through this edition, with weight and balance; flights over water; the proximity of controlled airspace; and NOTAMs all examples of where more attention was required. The misunderstanding of […]

REGISTERED TRAINING FACILITIES (RTF) TO CEASE AFTER 8/4/19

All Registered Training Facility (RTF) pilot training organisations are reminded that they must make the transition to either Declared Training Organisation (DTO) or Approved Training Organisation (ATO) status by 8th April 2019 if they wish to conduct flight training for the issue of an aeroplane or helicopter pilots licence. This is the date when RTF’s […]

Consultation on CAA statutory charges 2019/20

We are currently consulting on our statutory charge proposals for 2019/20. For more information, and to submit comments, see www.consultations.caa.co.uk All comments must be received before the consultation closes on 7 February 2019.

Airspace infringement statistics update

Latest infringement statistics plus details of Barton ATZ Infringements and how to avoid them now available at https://airspacesafety.com/. Latest infringement statistics Barton ATZ infringments and how to avoid them  

UK Airprox Board monthly review – November 2018

The UK Airprox Board (UKAB) has now published the details of recent airprox incidents. A monthly review has also been published which focuses in detail on one particular incident, to ensure that lessons can be learnt by pilots and air traffic controllers for the benefit of air safety in the future.   SW2018/238

EU Operational Rules for Sailplanes

A draft Commission Implementing Regulation regarding the revision of EU operational rules for sailplanes, amending Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 was discussed at the EASA Committee meeting on 24-25 October with a view to a possible vote. The proposal was welcomed by Member States and received a positive vote by consensus. This is another milestone […]

Update to EU exit information – student pilots

We have updated the information on our microsite concerning student pilots in the event of a non-negotiated EU exit. This new page on the microsite can be found here: https://info.caa.co.uk/eu-exit/student-pilots/  SW2018/234

The Air Navigation Order 2016 and Regulations

The fifth edition, amendment 28 September 2018 of CAP 393 The Air Navigation Order 2016 and Regulations has been published. Amendments to the Air Navigation Order are shown as explained in para 1.4 of the foreword.

Safetycom conversion to 8.33 kHz

From 3 January 2019 Safetycom and other common sporting and recreational assignments used across the UK will transition to 8.33 kHz voice channel spacing. The new channel number for Safetycom will be 135.480. Depcom will become 122.955. All pilots and ground stations need to use the correct channel number to ensure effective communications when using […]

Alert for airspace infringement statistics

Statistics of reported annual airspace infringements as of 30 September 2018 are now available at: https://airspacesafety.com/facts-stats-and-incidents/ SW2018/226

Consultation: Non-EASA fleet aircraft seat harness / belt lives

The CAA wishes to consult with key elements of the non-EASA GA Continued Airworthiness community on the most appropriate means to assure the integrity of seat harnesses and belts. The CAA considers that whilst introducing mandatory replacement lives for harnesses could be considered a means to ensure that an acceptable residual strength is retained, there […]

CAA launches airspace change portal

The UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has today launched a dedicated portal for proposed changes to UK airspace, which will provide communities and other interested stakeholders with a one-stop shop of information about designs of UK airspace that might impact them.

UK Airprox Board newsletter, October

The UK Airprox Board (UKAB) has now published the details of recent airprox incidents in an October 2018 summary. A monthly review has also been published which focuses in detail on one particular incident, to ensure that lessons can be learnt by pilots and air traffic controllers for the benefit of air safety in the […]

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Central London, 11 November 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for national ceremony to mark Remembrance Sunday at The Cenotaph, Central London on 11 November 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M095/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/210

Restricted airspace (temporary) – Hampshire, 6-10 October 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations at Stokes Bay, Hampshire due to intended mooring of US Aircraft Carrier on the grounds of safety and security between 6 and 10 October 2018. Details by NOTAM. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/207

Advice to the aviation industry on a no deal EU exit

We have developed a microsite at info.caa.co.uk/euexit to be a central source of information for the aviation and aerospace industries about the actions they would need to take to be prepared for a no deal withdrawal from the EU and no continued mutual recognition.

Quality maintenance and occurrence reporting for Gipsy Major engines

We published guidance on Gipsy Major engines on 6 September 2018 (CAP 1700). CAP 1700 advocates the provision of quality maintenance: it does not suggest that there are safety issues relating to this engine type. The information on the type of fuel available was based on reported evidence and expert opinion, our intention was not […]

FISO training, qualification and licensing review

We are seeking views on a series of concept proposals for future CAA policy on the training, qualification and licensing of UK flight information service officers (FISOs). More details and online survey available here: https://consultations.caa.co.uk/future-safety/fiso-training-qualification-licensing-review/ 

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Duxford, 22-23 September 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Duxford Battle of Britain air show, Cambridgeshire, on 22 and 23 September 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M090/2018. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restrictions for a Jet Formation Display Team will be promulgated separately. SW2018/198

Changes to the way you apply for a medical certificate

The CAA medical records system is being replaced. Changes will be implemented in a few months’ time and will provide greater accessibility, efficiency and transparency. The new web-based system will replace the existing paper-based application forms, changing the way in which you apply for a medical certificate. Details and guidance on how to use the […]

New guidance on Gipsy Major engines

The CAA is advising owners of Gipsy Major engines ensure routine checks are carried out by a company/person experienced on this engine type, if low compression is noticed in the engine when turning the propeller by hand or the engine is found to be running rough. Owners are also advised to ensure they are using […]

Automatic validation of flight crew licences issued in accordance with Regulation (EU) 1178/2011 as amended

We have published information on the automatic validation of EASA Part-FCL licences for those individuals operating aircraft on the register of non-UK EU Member States. This contains a link to the validation document required to operate those aircraft. The holding of the validation document is required as of 19 August 2018. SW2018/176

Performance Based Navigation (PBN) requirements for pilots

The new Performance Based Naviation (PBN) Regulations require that: Pilots must have been granted PBN privileges as an endorsement to their Instrument Rating (IR), in order to fly in accordance with PBN routes and procedures with effect from 25 August 2018. All pilots with an IR or En-route Instrument Rating (EIR) will require PBN privileges […]

Restricted airspace (temporary) – Whitby, North Yorkshire, 12 August 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for the Red Arrows display at Whitby, North Yorkshire, on 12 August 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M071/2018. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restrictions of different dimensions will apply for displays by the Red Arrows on certain days. SW2018/171

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Kent, 18-19 August 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Biggin Hill Air Show, Kent, on 18 and 19 August 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M070/2018. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restrictions of different dimensions will apply for displays by the Red Arrows on certain days. SW2018/168

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Eastbourne, 15-19 August 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations at Eastbourne for Airbourne 2018 Airshow between 15 and 19 August 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M062/2018. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restrictions of different dimensions will apply for displays by the Red Arrows on certain days. SW2018/167

Managing partial loss of engine power

We are sharing the Australian Transport Safety Bureau’s booklet on managing partial loss of engine power on take-off in single engine aircraft, following its inclusion in the AAIB’s report into the accident to Europa G-NDOL. We have also added this to the guidance available on our website. SW2018/162

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Cranwell, 16 July 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for a Red Arrows display at RAF Cranwell, Lincolnshire on 16 July 2018. Details by NOTAM only at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Due to late addition, this does not appear in the Mauve AIC list. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/143

Display season 18 mid-season update

We have published a Display season 18 mid-season update, containing a number of observations in order to provide feedback on DS18 to Display Pilots, Event Organisers and Flying Display Directors. SW2018/139

Important information for FAA airmen certificate holders

Holders of FAA airmen certificates issued on the basis of a UK licence where the UK licence number does not follow this example: GBR.FCL.PP.123456A.A should check the guidance on the CAA website if they have already applied for a UK licence issue or conversion. These applicants will have to travel to the US for their […]

Update to website: EU exit

We have updated our website with information about our preparations for the UK’s exit from the EU. Read more on our EU exit page. SW2018/135

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Scotland, 13-15 July 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations at Prestwick and Ayrshire 13-15 July 2018 for visiting Head of State. Details by NOTAM and more information on NATS website. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/134

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – South England, 12-13 July 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations at London and multiple locations to Essex, Oxfordshire, Berkshire and Buckinghamshire 12-13 July 2018 for visiting Head of State. Details by NOTAM and more information on NATS website. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/133

New guidance on upset prevention and recovery training for FSTDs

We have published information on our website describing the process by which suitable flight simulator training devices (FSTDs) can be qualified to support upset prevention and recovery training (UPRTs) according to CS-FSTA(A) Issue 2, and in readiness for the issue of amended Regulation (EU) No. 1178/2011. SW2018/132

Revocation of Alternative Means of Compliance FCL.A(b)(1)(ii), revalidation flight with Flight Instructor

The CAA has revoked the Alternative Means of Compliance (EASA ref: 2012-00009) published by the CAA in 2012, against Commission Regulation (EU) 1178/2011 as amended, Annex I, FCL.740.A(b)(1)(ii). This was also published in CAP 804, Part I, Section 4, Part H, Subpart 1, Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material (AMC and GM). The reason […]

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Silverstone, 6-8 July 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations at Silverstone and Turweston for British Grand Prix between 6 and 8 July 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M042/2018. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/128

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – RAF Fairford, 10 – 16 July 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Royal International Air Tattoo at RAF Fairford, between 10 and 16 July 2017. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M050/2018 and AIC M051/2018. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/122

Restricted airspace (temporary) – Llandudno, 30 June 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for a Red Arrows display at Llandudno, North Wales on 30 June 2018. Details by NOTAM and at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/111

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

A series of airspace restrictions will be in place between 3-6 July and 10 July for a flypast commemorating 100 years of the Royal Air Force (RAF). Details by NOTAM and in AICs M043/2018, M049/2018 and M051/2015. Restrictions apply to all airspace users including drones. SW2018/105

Licensing applications: certified copy of licence

We would like to remind pilots that a certified copy of their licence must be submitted with every licensing application. Please refer to our website for further information on how to get your documents certified. This ensures that we reissue licences with the correct ratings and validities. Applications submitted without certified copies of licences will […]

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Summer Solstice at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, on 20 and 21 June 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M026/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/98

CAA increases operational scope of GA Permit aircraft

UK National Permit to Fly General Aviation (GA) aircraft can now be used in certain circumstances for remunerated commercial training and self-fly hire, the UK Civil Aviation Authority has announced. The move follows extensive consultation with the GA community. Read the full announcement: CAA increases operational scope of GA Permit aircraft Full details of the […]

Revised Human Factors strategy published

Our strategy sets out how we propose to contribute to the development of greater understanding and application of Human Factors (HF) knowledge to support Human Performance (HP) in the operational environment. It builds on previous versions; sets out what we want to achieve; lays out our strategic objectives; and describes the expected benefits and outcomes. […]

Student Pilots Skill Test

The CAA provides guidance to training providers, instructors and students, concerning flights after completion of a Skill Test, but prior to receipt of licence. SW2018/96

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations in Central London 9 June 2018 for Trooping the Colour. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M035/2018. Restrictions of flying also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/95

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations over Suffolk, Essex, London, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire on 9 June 2018 for HM The Queen’s Birthday Flypast. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M025/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/94

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Royal Air Force Cosford Air Show and rehearsals between 7 and 10 June 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M024/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restrictions for a Jet Formation Display Team will be communicated separately. SW2018/93

CHIRP General Aviation FEEDBACK Edition 76

CHIRP’s latest edition of GA FEEDBACK highlights two themes – supervision in training and fitness to fly. Plus covers the use of the SAFETYCOM frequency, managing portable electronic devices and much more. Read the latest issue here. SW2018/091

Expired: New funding round for 8.33 kHz radio switchover

We have opened a new funding period to help general aviation pilots who still need to buy an 8.33 kHz radio for their aircraft. Applications can now be accepted to 30 September 2018. Forms and guidance available on the CAA website SW 2018/090

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Great Yarmouth Air on 16 and 17 June 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M029/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restriction may be put in place for jet Formation Display Teams. SW2018/89

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Torbay Air Show, Paignton, Devon, on 1, 2 and 3 June 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M017/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/88

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for a Patrouille de France (French Air Force Jet Display Team) at Duxford Aerodrome Cambridgeshire on 24 and 27 May 2018. Details by NOTAM at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/87

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Red Arrows displays at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk on 16 and 17 June 2018. Details by NOTAM at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/83

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Duxford Air Festival, Cambridgeshire, on 26 and 27 May 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M018/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. Additional restrictions for a Jet Formation Display Team will be promulgated separately. SW2018/81

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations at Manchester on 22 May 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M040/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/80

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Midlands Air Festival, Alcester, Warwickshire, on 19 and 20 May 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M019/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/79

Identification requirement for flight crew licensing applications

Pilots are required to submit certified copies of their ID (such as passport or driving licence) for certain Flight Crew Licensing applications. For security and fraud prevention reasons, the UK CAA is no longer able to accept black and white copies of ID documents. Any applications submitted on or after 14 May 2018 which require […]

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Abingdon Air and Country Show Flying Display at Abingdon Aerodrome, Oxfordshire on 5 and 6 May 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M008/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/72

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Royal Wedding at Windsor Castle on 19 and 20 May 2018. Details by NOTAM and in AIC M021/2018 at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/70

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations at Isle of Islay on 4 May 2018. Details by NOTAM and in a briefing sheet at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/68

Temporary licence certificates

The CAA has updated the forms and guidance material related to the temporary licence certificate. The following changes have been made: – Low visibility (LV) box removed (no longer applicable) – Clarification of the CAA policy that the expiry date 8 weeks shall be from the date of the flight test, zero flight time training […]

CAP632 Permit-to-Fly ex-military aircraft – new version

Fully updated requirements and expanded guidance for operators of ex-military permit-to-fly aircraft. Reflects recent changes to this and CAP403 on air displays following recent investigations, including addition of SSAC operations. SW2018/64

Introductory Flights – Guidance To Operators

Updated guidance for operators of introductory flights has been published on our website via: http://www.caa.co.uk/General-aviation/Aircraft-ownership-and-maintenance/Introductory-flights/. This document has been produced to provide easy access to the rules and regulations surrounding introductory flights. SW2018/61

Expired: Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Three sets of Restriction of Flying Regulations for Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in London between 18 April and 21 April 2018. Details by NOTAM and in a briefing sheet at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/60

UK Airprox Board newsletter, March

UKAB’s March 2018 summary focuses on downwind, with the example of the C152 and C172 which came into conflict at Cumbernauld. The ‘UKAB monthly round-up’ includes an assessment of 21 incidents by the Board. SW2018/056

Alert for restricted airspace (temporary)

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Red Arrows display at RAF Linton-on-Ouse, North Yorkshire on either 27, or 28 March 2018. Details by NOTAM can be found at http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all Drones. SW2018/052

CAA Scheme of Charges 2018/19

The revised CAA Schemes of Charges, effective as from 1 April 2018, are now available. We asked for comments on the charge proposals. We are grateful for the submissions received and have published our response (CAP 1626). SW2018/046

English Language Proficiency for pilots

This notification provides clarification to licence holders about the English Language Proficiency assessment process. Flight Radiotelephony Operator’s Licence (FRTOL) holders who have not converted to Part-FCL, new FRTOL applicants, those holding level 4 or 5 Language Proficiency should be aware that they must hold a valid Language Proficiency validation to operate such equipment. If you […]

Airline pilot standards MCC course

There’s a new multi-crew cooperation course known as the airline pilot standards multi-crew cooperation course, or APS MCC for short. Pilots seeking to take the new course will need to apply to an Approved Training Organisation (ATO) certified by the CAA to deliver it. There will be a final assessment at the end of the […]

Test notification requirements

From 1 April 2018 the CAA will require test notification to be requested in any instance before an applicant completes a skill test, or a proficiency check or assessment of competence with a non-UK CAA EASA examiner, in accordance with ARA.FCL.205 and section 2.4 of the EASA Examiner Differences Document. The test notification email return must be […]

Guidance for pilots on type rating differences courses

The EASA Type Ratings and Licence endorsement lists show where additional ‘differences’ training is required, if you are to operate certain variants within a type endorsement. For example, if you have a Type Endorsement B757/767, you can fly one of the aircraft within the endorsement, i.e. the B767, but will require additional training to fly the […]

Declared Training Organisations – guidance material

The General Aviation Unit of the CAA has produced a Guidance Document to help Training Organisations take advantage of the incoming European regulations for Declared Training Organisations (DTOs). It is envisaged that the new regulations will come into force on 8 April 2018 with a 12 month transitional period. The document (CAP1637) is designed to […]

Converting to an EASA Licence from a UK National/JAR licence

To fly EASA certified aircraft from 8 April 2018 pilots will need to hold an EASA licence. Please note that the following exceptions apply: 1. National licences for microlights and gyroplanes do not have an equivalent EASA licence to convert to. 2. EASA Balloon and Sailplane licensing is subject to delays in the drafting of […]

UK Airprox Board newsletter, February

UKAB’s February 2018 summary focuses largely on Airprox incidents resulting from sub-optimal airmanship. ‘Airprox of the Month’ relates to an incident at Compton Abbas where two C42 Ikarus aircraft were both joining for a right-hand circuit on runway 26. SW2018/024

CHIRP General Aviation FEEDBACK, Edition 75

In this latest edition: – letters of agreement – charging portable electronic devices in the cockpit – fuel selectors and fuel filler caps – flight in IMC without a surveillance-based Air Traffic Service (how to minimise the risk) – cowling loss Read all about it here. SW2018/022

Transition of frequency assignments to 8.33 KHZ voice channel spacing

During 2018 most ground stations radios will convert to 8.33 kHz channel spacing. Airspace users must ensure they are correctly equipped and carry an 8.33 kHz capable radio where required. A list of converted ground stations is maintained in an AIP supplement. Pilots are required to check supplement data before they fly and to review […]

Expired: Restricted airspace (temporary) – Cheltenham Festival, 13 – 16 March 2018

Restriction of Flying Regulations for Cheltenham Festival, between 13 and 16 March 2018. Details of Restricted Airspace in NOTAM and in AIC Mauve 006/2018, which can be found on the NATS website. Restrictions also apply to the operation of all drones. SW2018/15

Expired: CHIRP Air Transport FEEDBACK Edition 125

In this latest issue of CHIRP: – Is there a systemic problem with aviation? Pilots, ATCOs and engineers report pressure to achieve more output with fewer resources. Are Safety Management Systems too reactive? – EASA regulations and potential legal implications of using Commander’s Discretion are reported as well as the effects of an industrial dispute […]

Expired: Pilot logbooks – loss, damage, corruption or theft

With immediate effect, the CAA will no longer accept the submission of a sworn affidavit as the primary means of accepting hours for the grant of a licence, rating, certificate or the revalidation and extension/or removal of restriction of privileges where an individual is unable to provide logbook evidence of their required hours due to loss, […]

Expired: Publication of AIC Y 001/2018 UK Flight Information Services

The ICAO requirements for a Flight Information Service within Class E and G airspace in the UK are met through a suite of air traffic services that are collectively known as the UK Flight Information Services (FIS). These services are provided in accordance with CAP 774: UK Flight Information Services and are detailed within UK AIP […]

UK overflight of non ICAO compliant permit to fly aircraft

Further to successive recommendations by the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC), the CAA now allows both foreign home built aircraft and certain historic foreign registered aircraft types allowed into the UK without applying for a permit. Information on this general exemption is published in Official Record Series 4 ORS4 No.1249. SW2017/228

English language proficiency testing and flight crew licensing

The CAA has published guidance for training organisations and examiners on carrying out an informal language proficiency assessment. The guidance provides information about the criteria for achieving an Expert / Level 6 rating,  assessing native speakers and the ICAO rating scale. You can read the language proficiency guidance on our website. SW2017/227